Danilo Valladares -
(IPS) - The Mayan calendar does not include any global catastrophe, nor the end of the world.
But the natural resources of the planet, so those are in grave danger because of 'human activity, they warn elderly and indigenous activists interviewed in Guatemala.
According to the Mayan calendar, December 21, 2012 will mark the end of the cycle 13 Batkun (a baktun is equal to 144 thousand days): this has sparked the 'mass hysteria among those who argue that the end of the cycle symbolizes major disasters and the end of the world , but is no confirmation in thought natives of Guatemala.
"There are leaders who are influenced by some rumors, or perhaps the number 13 is associated with a strong energy, so fear possible disasters, but there 'is no truth," he told IPS' s activist Antonio Mendoza , NGO Oxlajuj Ajpop, a name that in Maya Quiché language refers to 13 energies of the Mayan calendar. On the contrary, he explains, "this new phase is extremely important for the reflections and analysis on human society and nature."
According to historians, the 13 Baktun began the 'August 11, 3114 BC and will end December 21, 2012, the day will begin a new cycle of 144 thousand other days. "What worries us is how to bring together the efforts to change our behavior towards nature, global warming and the neoliberal policies that deal only extract oil and minerals and to build large factories, seriously endangering the 'humanity' says Mendoza. In this sense, several organizations Maya of Guatemala have planned a series of activities for the 'year, including seminars, forums and meetings to discuss and find development opportunities for the indigenous population. "It is the aim of redemption 'invaluable indigenous knowledge of nature and Mother Earth in a context of unity and solidarity," says Mendoza.
The first evidence of the Mayan civilization date back to 3 thousand years ago, when they created the first settlements in Mesoamerica, a 'area that today includes five states of southeastern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and western Honduras. In the classical period, between 250 and 900 BC The Mayan civilization was one of the most developed in the world, for the 'architecture and city planning, the system of hieroglyphic writing, the accurate mathematical calculations and the' astronomy. The Mayans have made an important contribution to 'art, science and literature. Their descendants still retain their languages, traditions and customs, and the majestic archaeological sites in the areas where they live are popular with tourists and researchers.
In Guatemala, according to official statistics, indigenous peoples account for nearly 40 percent of the 14 million inhabitants of the country, divided into Maya, Garifuna and Xinca, although indigenous organizations indicate a figure of 60 percent. Mario Molina, the national network of youth organizations maya (Renoj), told IPS that on 21 December "does not mean the end of the Maya or the world, but it will be the 'opportunity to assess progress in the development of the nature and 'humanity. " The 'activist has expressed concern over environmental degradation and global warming caused by' activities of 'man, that "it is one of the fundamental elements to be discussed."
This period will be rather "a good time to build a multicultural country, coupled with a shared vision," a long-standing desire for Maya population has always been marginalized in Guatemala. Extreme poverty, lack of education and health services are urgent problems in this country, where more than half of the population, 54 percent, live in poverty and 13 percent in 'poverty, according to the' Enquiry national living conditions 2011. Molina has denounced the various forms of racism they face the Maya, which are reflected in the lack of political participation, poverty and other aspects. To take advantage of this end of the calendar cycle to promote actions "aimed to respect the dignity, life and human rights".
Some see this phase of the Mayan calendar as the 'opening a window of opportunity. For example the 'Guatemalan Institute of Tourism has launched the "L' Dawn of the Maya", to celebrate the 13 Baktun and attract a greater number of visitors interested in this culture and its archaeological sites. Cirilo Pérez, spiritual adviser of the 'former president of Guatemala, Alvaro Colom, whose term ended in mid-January, told IPS that "this is not the end of the world. What happens is that phenomena such as earthquakes, tsunamis, tornados and disease have worsened due to the heavy pollution caused by 'man. " L 'idea that the world will end in 2012 inspired books, blogs, TV shows and movies from the apocalyptic implications worldwide, and even extravagant projects such as underground bunkers anti cataclysm.
But the spiritual guidance stresses that "it is not the end of the world. The Mayan calendar can only be understood by the Maya, although several researchers, archaeologists, anthropologists and historians have written many books on the subject, but without grasping the meaning. " According to Pérez, the real Mayan writings were burned by Diego de Lanza, Spanish Archbishop of 'Mexican archdiocese of Yucatan (1572-1579), who considered the documents "superstitions and falsehoods of the devil." De Landa was one of the first Franciscan friars to arrive in the Yucatan Peninsula, where for years he devoted himself to 'work of evangelization of the Maya, despite their reluctance to accept Catholicism.
Pérez, appointed by Colom ambassador of indigenous peoples, unlike other historical and Mayan elders, revealed that "there are still 60 or 70 years at the end of the cycle of 13 Baktun" although certain "there 's only God."
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